Professor Helen Thomas is head of the Immunology and Diabetes Unit at St Vincent’s Institute in Melbourne. Her research is focused on prevention of type 1 diabetes.
She aims to protect the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas from being destroyed by both the immune system and the stress that diabetes places on these cells. She uses flow cytometry, imaging and molecular biology techniques to study islet and immune cells, using human islets and the non-obese mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
Her work is being applied to humans through the transplantation of islets isolated from organ donors by the Tom Mandel Islet Transplant Program in Victoria to reverse type 1 diabetes in severe cases. She has also developed collaborations with industry to test immune suppressive drugs, in particular JAK inhibitors, in clinical trials for type 1 diabetes.
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Helen Thomas' selected work
Metallothionein 1 negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and is differe..
IL-21 regulates SOCS1 expression in autoreactive CD8( ) T cells but is not required for ac..
Soluble FAS ligand is not required for pancreatic islet inflammation or beta-cell destruct..
Displaying the most recent project by Helen Thomas.
Displaying the 73 most recent scholarly works by Helen Thomas.
E2f8 and Dlg2 genes have independent effects on impaired insulin secretion associated with hyperglycaemia
Chieh-Hsin Yang, Salvatore P Mangiafico, Michaela Waibel, Thomas Loudovaris, Kim Loh, Helen E Thomas, Grant Morahan, Sofianos Andrikopoulos
Journal article | 2020 | Diabetologia
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Reduced insulin secretion results in hyperglycaemia and diabetes involving a complex aetiology that is yet to be ..
Metallothionein 1 negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and is differentially expressed in conditions of beta cell compensation and failure in mice and humans.
Mohammed Bensellam, Yan-Chuan Shi, Jeng Yie Chan, D Ross Laybutt, Heeyoung Chae, Michel Abou-Samra, Evan G Pappas, Helen E Thomas, Patrick Gilon, Jean-Christophe Jonas
Journal article | 2019 | Diabetologia
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The mechanisms responsible for beta cell compensation in obesity and for beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes are..
IL-21 regulates SOCS1 expression in autoreactive CD8( ) T cells but is not required for acquisition of CTL activity in the islets of non-obese diabetic mice
Andrew PR Sutherland, Kate L Graham, Michelle Papadimitriou, Gaurang Jhala, Prerak Trivedi, Tara Catterall, Stacey Fynch, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2019 | Scientific Reports
In type 1 diabetes, maturation of activated autoreactive CD8+ T cells to fully armed effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) occurs..
Soluble FAS ligand is not required for pancreatic islet inflammation or beta-cell destruction in non-obese diabetic mice
Prerak M Trivedi, Stacey Fynch, Lucy M Kennedy, Jonathan Chee, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Andreas Strasser, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2019 | Cell Death Discovery
CD8+ T cells play a central role in beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. CD8+ T cells use two main effector pathways to kill ..
Phlda3 regulates beta cell survival during stress.
Mohammed Bensellam, Jeng Yie Chan, Kailun Lee, Mugdha V Joglekar, Anandwardhan A Hardikar, Thomas Loudovaris, Helen E Thomas, Jean-Christophe Jonas, D Ross Laybutt
Journal article | 2019 | Scientific Reports
The loss of functional beta cell mass characterises all forms of diabetes. Beta cells are highly susceptible to stress, including ..
Replica moulded poly(dimethylsiloxane) microwell arrays induce localized endothelial cell immobilization for coculture with pancreatic islets
Anouck LS Burzava, Aurelien Forget, Frances J Harding, Michaelia P Cockshell, Daniella Penko, Camille Rouzaud, Vincent Ahmadi, Paula F Marina, Darling Rojas-Canales, Claudine S Bonder, P Toby H Coates, Michaela Waibel, Helen E Thomas, Thomas W Kay, Thomas Loudovaris, Anton Blencowe, Nicolas H Voelcker
Journal article | 2019 | Biointerphases
Replacing murine insulin 1 with human insulin protects NOD mice from diabetes.
Colleen M Elso, Nicholas A Scott, Lina Mariana, Emma I Masterman, Andrew PR Sutherland, Helen E Thomas, Stuart I Mannering
Journal article | 2019 | PLOS ONE
Type 1, or autoimmune, diabetes is caused by the T-cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Non-o..
IFN gamma-Induced MHC Class II Expression on Islet Endothelial Cells Is an Early Marker of Insulitis but Is Not Required for Diabetogenic CD4( ) T Cell Migration
Nicholas A Scott, Yuxing Zhao, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Stuart I Mannering, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2018 | Frontiers in Immunology
Proinsulin C-peptide is an autoantigen in people with type 1 diabetes
Michelle So, Colleen M Elso, Eleonora Tresoldi, Miha Pakusch, Vimukthi Pathiraja, John M Wentworth, Leonard C Harrison, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Helen E Thomas, Christine Rodda, Fergus J Cameron, Jacinta McMahon, Thomas WH Kay, Stuart I Mannering
Journal article | 2018 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Expression of miR-206 in human islets and its role in glucokinase regulation.
Mugdha V Joglekar, Wilson KM Wong, Cody-Lee Maynard, Malati R Umrani, David Martin, Thomas Loudovaris, Helen E Thomas, Louise T Dalgaard, Anandwardhan A Hardikar
Journal article | 2018 | American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism
Inappropriate insulin secretion from β-cells is considered as an early sign of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes (T2D..
Australian Experience of Total Pancreatectomy and Islet Auto Transplant (TPIAT) Utilizing a Remote Isolation Center
Chris Drogemuller, Toni Radford, Chris Russell, John Chen, Sanjeev Khurana, David Torpy, Jennifer Couper, Richard Couper, Cameron Kos, Nicole Bleasdale, Helen Thomas, Allison Irvin, Tom Kay, Lina Mariana, Thomas Loudovaris, Toby Coates
Conference Proceedings | 2018 | Transplantation
Oxygen-permeable microwell device maintains islet mass and integrity during shipping
Darling M Rojas-Canales, Michaela Waibel, Aurelien Forget, Daniella Penko, Jodie Nitschke, Fran J Harding, Bahman Delalat, Anton Blencowe, Thomas Loudovaris, Shane T Grey, Helen E Thomas, Thomas WH Kay, Chris J Drogemuller, Nicolas H Voelcker, Patrick T Coates
Journal article | 2018 | Endocrine Connections
Loss of intra-islet heparan sulfate is a highly sensitive marker of type 1 diabetes progression in humans
Charmaine J Simeonovic, Sarah K Popp, Lora M Starrs, Debra J Brown, Andrew F Ziolkowski, Barbara Ludwig, Stefan R Bornstein, J Dennis Wilson, Alberto Pugliese, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Fui Jiun Choong, Craig Freeman, Christopher R Parish
Journal article | 2018 | PLOS ONE
Loss of BIM increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and lipid oxidation, reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in mice
Jibran A Wali, Sandra Galic, Christina YR Tan, Esteban N Gurzov, Ann E Frazier, Timothy Connor, Jingjing Ge, Evan G Pappas, David Stroud, L Chitra Varanasi, Claudia Selck, Michael T Ryan, David R Thorburn, Bruce E Kemp, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Thomas WH Kay, Sean L Mcgee, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2018 | Cell Death & Differentiation
Loss of BIM increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and lipid oxidation, reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in mice.
Jibran A Wali, Sandra Galic, Christina Yr Tan, Esteban N Gurzov, Ann E Frazier, Timothy Connor, Jingjing Ge, Evan G Pappas, David Stroud, L Chitra Varanasi, Claudia Selck, Michael T Ryan, David R Thorburn, Bruce E Kemp, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Thomas Wh Kay, Sean L McGee, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2018 | Cell death and differentiation
BCL-2 proteins are known to engage each other to determine the fate of a cell after a death stimulus. However, their evolutionary ..
Characterization of the Human Pancreas Side Population as a Potential Reservoir of Adult Stem Cells
Petra Augstein, Thomas Loudovaris, Esther Bandala-Sanchez, Peter Heinke, Gaetano Naselli, Lily Lee, Wayne J Hawthorne, L Jorge Gonez, Alana M Neale, Francois Vaillant, Helen E Thomas, Thomas W Kay, Ilia Banakh, Leonard C Harrison
Journal article | 2018 | Pancreas
JNK Activation of BIM Promotes Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Steatosis, and Insulin Resistance in Obesity
Sara A Litwak, Lokman Pang, Sandra Galic, Mariana Igoillo-Esteve, William J Stanley, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Kim Loh, Helen E Thomas, Arpeeta Sharma, Eric Trepo, Christophe Moreno, Daniel J Gough, Decio L Eizirik, Judy B de Haan, Esteban N Gurzov
Journal article | 2017 | Diabetes
The members of the BCL-2 family are crucial regulators of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in normal physiology and disease...
Differential regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling by protein tyrosine phosphatases in pancreatic β-cells.
William J Stanley, Prerak M Trivedi, Andrew P Sutherland, Helen E Thomas, Esteban N Gurzov
Journal article | 2017 | Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells by immune cells in the pancreas. Pro-inflam..
Inhibition of Y1 receptor signaling improves islet transplant outcome
Kim Loh, Yan-Chuan Shi, Stacey Walters, Mohammed Bensellam, Kailun Lee, Katsuya Dezaki, Masanori Nakata, Chi Kin Ip, Jeng Yie Chan, Esteban N Gurzov, Helen E Thomas, Michaela Waibel, James Cantley, Thomas W Kay, Toshihiko Yada, D Ross Laybutt, Shane T Grey, Herbert Herzog
Journal article | 2017 | Nature Communications
Repurposed JAK1/JAK2 Inhibitor Reverses Established Autoimmune Insulitis in NOD Mice
Prerak M Trivedi, Kate L Graham, Nicholas A Scott, Misty R Jenkins, Suktilang Majaw, Robyn M Sutherland, Stacey Fynch, Andrew M Lew, Christopher J Burns, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Thomas C Brodnicki, Stuart I Mannering, Thomas W Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2017 | Diabetes
Disruption of Serinc1, which facilitates serine-derived lipid synthesis, fails to alter macrophage function, lymphocyte proliferation or autoimmune disease susceptibility
Edward PF Chu, Colleen M Elso, Abigail H Pollock, May A Alsayb, Leanne Mackin, Helen E Thomas, Thomas WH Kay, Pablo A Silveira, Ashley S Mansell, Katharina Gaus, Thomas C Brodnicki
Journal article | 2017 | Molecular Immunology
The JAK/STAT pathway in obesity and diabetes.
Esteban N Gurzov, William J Stanley, Evan G Pappas, Helen E Thomas, Daniel J Gough
Journal article | 2016 | The FEBS Journal
Diabetes mellitus are complex, multi-organ metabolic pathologies characterized by hyperglycemia. Emerging evidence shows that the ..
p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.
Sara A Litwak, Kim Loh, William J Stanley, Evan G Pappas, Jibran A Wali, Claudia Selck, Andreas Strasser, Helen E Thomas, Esteban N Gurzov
Journal article | 2016 | Scientific Reports
Perforin facilitates beta cell killing and regulates autoreactive CD8( ) T-cell responses to antigen in mouse models of type 1 diabetes
Prerak Trivedi, Kate L Graham, Balasubramaninan Krishnamurthy, Stacey Fynch, Robyn M Slattery, Thomas Wh Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2016 | Immunology & Cell Biology
BIM Deficiency Protects NOD Mice From Diabetes by Diverting Thymocytes to Regulatory T Cells
Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Jonathan Chee, Gaurang Jhala, Prerak Trivedi, Tara Catterall, Claudia Selck, Esteban N Gurzov, Thomas C Brodnicki, Kate L Graham, Jibran A Wali, Yifan Zhan, Daniel Gray, Andreas Strasser, Janette Allison, Helen E Thomas, Thomas WH Kay
Journal article | 2015 | Diabetes
Autoreactive T cells induce necrosis and not BCL-2-regulated or death receptor-mediated apoptosis or RIPK3-dependent necroptosis of transplanted islets in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes
Yuxing Zhao, Nicholas A Scott, Stacey Fynch, Lorraine Elkerbout, W Wei-Lynn Wong, Kylie D Mason, Andreas Strasser, David C Huang, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2015 | Diabetologia
Lipotoxic Stress Induces Pancreatic beta-Cell Apoptosis through Modulation of Bcl-2 Proteins by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System
Sara A Litwak, Jibran A Wali, Evan G Pappas, Hamdi Saadi, William J Stanley, L Chitra Varanasi, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas, Esteban N Gurzov
Journal article | 2015 | Journal of Diabetes Research
Glycemic control in diabetes is restored by therapeutic manipulation of cytokines that regulate beta cell stress
Sumaira Z Hasnain, Danielle J Borg, Brooke E Harcourt, Hui Tong, Yonghua H Sheng, Choa Ping Ng, Indrajit Das, Ran Wang, Alice C-H Chen, Thomas Loudovaris, Thomas W Kay, Helen E Thomas, Jonathan P Whitehead, Josephine M Forbes, Johannes B Prins, Michael A McGuckin
Journal article | 2014 | Nature Medicine
Deficiency in Type I Interferon Signaling Prevents the Early Interferon-Induced Gene Signature in Pancreatic Islets but Not Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice
Hong Sheng Quah, Socorro Miranda-Hernandez, Aimee Khoo, Ashley Harding, Stacey Fynch, Lorraine Elkerbout, Thomas C Brodnicki, Alan G Baxter, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas, Kate L Graham
Journal article | 2014 | Diabetes
The proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma are downstream of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial oxidative stress in pancreatic islets in response to glucotoxicity
JA Wali, D Rondas, MD McKenzie, Y Zhao, L Elkerbout, S Fynch, EN Gurzov, S Akira, C Mathieu, TWH Kay, L Overbergh, A Strasser, HE Thomas
Journal article | 2014 | Cell Death & Disease
Effector-Memory T Cells Develop in Islets and Report Islet Pathology in Type 1 Diabetes
Jonathan Chee, Hyun-Ja Ko, Ania Skowera, Gaurang Jhala, Tara Catterall, Kate L Graham, Robyn M Sutherland, Helen E Thomas, Andrew M Lew, Mark Peakman, Thomas WH Kay, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy
Journal article | 2014 | The Journal of Immunology
The Protective Effects of CD39 Overexpression in Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice
Joanne SJ Chia, Jennifer L McRae, Helen E Thomas, Stacey Fynch, Lorraine Elkerbout, Prue Hill, Lisa Murray-Segal, Simon C Robson, Jiang-Fan Chen, Anthony JF d'Apice, Peter J Cowan, Karen M Dwyer
Journal article | 2013 | Diabetes
Residual methylprednisolone suppresses human T-cell responses to spleen, but not islet, extracts from deceased organ donors
Max Joffe, Andra S Necula, Rochna Chand, Brett C McWhinney, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Tom Loudovaris, David Goodman, Helen E Thomas, Thomas WH Kay, Stuart I Mannering
Journal article | 2012 | International Immunology
Complete Diabetes Protection Despite Delayed Thymic Tolerance in NOD8.3 TCR Transgenic Mice Due to Antigen-Induced Extrathymic Deletion of T Cells
Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Jonathan Chee, Gaurang Jhala, Stacey Fynch, Kate L Graham, Pere Santamaria, Grant Morahan, Janette Allison, David Izon, Helen E Thomas, Thomas WH Kay
Journal article | 2012 | Diabetes
Expression of Pro- and Antiapoptotic Molecules of the Bcl-2 Family in Human Islets Postisolation
Peter D Campbell, Anita Weinberg, Jonathan Chee, Lina Mariana, Rochelle Ayala, Wayne J Hawthorne, Philip J O'Connell, Thomas Loudovaris, Mark J Cowley, Thomas W Kay, Shane T Grey, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2012 | Cell Transplantation
Pathogenic mechanisms in type 1 diabetes: the islet is both target and driver of disease.
Kate L Graham, Robyn M Sutherland, Stuart I Mannering, Yuxing Zhao, Jonathan Chee, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Helen E Thomas, Andrew M Lew, Thomas WH Kay
Journal article | 2012 | The Review of Diabetic Studies
Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes have occurred in all steps of the disease. This review..
TNF Receptor 1 Deficiency Increases Regulatory T Cell Function in Nonobese Diabetic Mice
Jonathan Chee, Eveline Angstetra, Lina Mariana, Kate L Graham, Emma M Carrington, Horst Bluethmann, Pere Santamaria, Janette Allison, Thomas WH Kay, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2011 | Journal of Immunology
The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bid is dispensable for development of insulitis and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse
Zia UA Mollah, Jibran Wali, Mark D McKenzie, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Kate L Graham, Stacey Fynch, Joshua Szanyi, Pere Santamaria, Thomas Brodnicki, Janette Allison, Andreas Strasser, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2011 | Apoptosis
Autoreactive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Acquire Higher Expression of Cytotoxic Effector Markers in the Islets of NOD Mice after Priming in Pancreatic Lymph Nodes
Kate L Graham, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Stacey Fynch, Zia U Mollah, Robyn Slattery, Pere Santamaria, Thomas W Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2011 | American Journal of Pathology
Glucose Induces Pancreatic Islet Cell Apoptosis That Requires the BH3-Only Proteins Bim and Puma and Multi-BH Domain Protein Bax
Mark D McKenzie, Emma Jamieson, Elisa S Jansen, Clare L Scott, David CS Huang, Philippe Bouillet, Janette Allison, Thomas WH Kay, Andreas Strasser, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2010 | Diabetes
In vivo effects of cytokines on pancreatic beta-cells in models of type I diabetes dependent on CD4( ) T lymphocytes
Eveline Angstetra, Kate L Graham, Sarah Emmett, Nadine L Dudek, Rima Darwiche, Rochelle Ayala-Perez, Janette Allison, Pere Santamaria, Thomas WH Kay, Helen E Thomas
Journal article | 2009 | Immunology and Cell Biology
Autoimmunity to both proinsulin and IGRP is required for diabetes in nonobese diabetic 8.3 TCR transgenic mice
Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Lina Mariana, Shane A Gellert, Peter G Colman, Leonard C Harrison, Andrew M Lew, Pere Santamaria, Helen E Thomas, Thomas WH Kay
Journal article | 2008 | Journal of Immunology
Cytotoxic T cell mechanisms of beta cell destruction in non-obese diabetic mice.
Thomas WH Kay, Nadine L Dudek, Kate Graham, Eugene Estella, Eveline Angstetra, Mark D McKenzie, Jan Allison, Helen E Thomas
Book Chapter | 2008 | Novartis Foundation symposium
CD8+ T cells are the principal cellular mediators of beta cell destruction in the NOD mouse. Molecular mediators include perforin ..
Evaluation of promoters for driving efficient transgene expression in neonatal porcine islets
Sarah L Londrigan, Jamie L Brady, Robyn M Sutherland, Wayne J Hawthorne, Helen E Thomas, Guarang Jhala, Peter J Cowan, Thomas WH Kay, Philip J O'Connell, Andrew M Lew
Journal article | 2007 | Xenotransplantation
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