Estrogen, androgen, and the pathogenesis of bone fragility in women and men.
Current Osteoporosis Reports | Published : 2004
During growth, estrogen deficiency in females may produce increased bone size as a result of removal of inhibition of periosteal apposition, while failed endosteal apposition produces thin cortices and trabeculae in the smaller bone. In males, androgen deficiency produces reduced periosteal and endosteal apposition, reduced bone size, and cortical and trabecular thickness. At completion of longitudinal growth, advancing age is associated with emergence of a negative bone balance in each basic multicellular unit (BMU) because of reduced bone formation. Bone loss occurs, but slowly because the remodeling rate is slow. In midlife, in females, estrogen deficiency increases remodeling rate, incre..View full abstract