Journal article

Management of refractory breathlessness with morphine in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

N Smallwood, B Le, D Currow, L Irving, J Philip

Internal Medicine Journal | WILEY | Published : 2015


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, incurable illness, which leads to significant morbidity over long periods of time and mortality. Treatment aims to reduce symptoms, improve exercise capacity and quality of life, reduce exacerbations, slow disease progression and reduce mortality. However, breathlessness is common in patients with advanced COPD and remains undertreated. As all reversible causes of breathlessness are being optimally managed, consideration should be given to specific non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment strategies for breathlessness. Low dose morphine has been shown to reduce safely and effectively breathlessness in patients with sever..

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