Book Chapter

Epidemiology and aetiological factors

V Josan, A Morokoff, WJ Maixner

The Spina Bifida: Management and Outcome | Published : 2008


Spina bifida refers to a wide range of neural tube defects (NTDs) affecting the spine and spinal cord. These defects result from the maldevelopment of the neuropore and the adjacent mesodermal and ectodermal structures during embryogenesis. Spina bifida can be classified as either open or closed type according to the presence or absence of exposed neural tissue. These are called spina bifida aperta and spina bifida occulta, respectively. Spina bifida aperta is caused by the failure of primary neurulation resulting in exposed neural tissue or meninges with or without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. It includes two main types: myelomeningocele and meningocele. Myelomeningocele is the severest for..

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