Journal article

Molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma: implications for future research and clinical intervention

Maria-Pia Bernardi, Samuel Y Ngan, Michael Michael, A Craig Lynch, Alexander G Heriot, Robert G Ramsay, Wayne A Phillips

LANCET ONCOLOGY | ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC | Published : 2015

Abstract

Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a human papillomavirus-related disease, in which no substantial advances in treatment have been made in over 40 years, especially for those patients who develop disease relapse and for whom no surgical options exist. HPV can evade the immune system and its role in disease progression can be exploited in novel immunotherapy platforms. Although several studies have investigated the expression and inactivation (through loss of heterozygosity) of tumour suppressor genes in the pathways to cancer, no clinically valuable biomarkers have emerged. Regulators of apoptosis, including survivin, and agents targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway, offer opportunities for targeted t..

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