A two-dimensional dynamic model of the human knee joint.
S Kim, MG Pandy
Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation | Published : 1993
A two-dimensional dynamic model of the knee joint was incorporated into a four-segment, eight-muscle model of the human body to determine the muscle, ligament, and articular contact forces transmitted at the knee as humans stand up from a static squatting position. Our optimal control model predicted peak tibiofemoral contact forces as high as 8 times body weight. Furthermore, ligament forces, especially those in the anterior-cruciate, were nearly body weight as knee flexion approached 90 degrees. Ligament and tibiofemoral contact loads were dominated by the forces exerted by muscles during the movement.