Journal article

Carbonization reactions in novolac resins, hexamethylenetetramine, and furfuryl alcohol mixtures

XQ Zhang, DH Solomon

CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS | AMER CHEMICAL SOC | Published : 1999

Abstract

The carbonization process of novolac resins cured by hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in the presence of furfuryl alcohol (FA) was studied by a high-resolution solid-state NMR technique. Most reactions occur below 600 °C, and aliphatic species disappear above 800 °C. Nitrogen (2-3%) is present in the carbon materials obtained. The process can be influenced by the starting novolac structures, ca. the ratio of ortho / para reactive sites, and the FA content in the systems. When a novolac resin contains a high ratio of para-reactive sites, the carbonization reaction occurs at relatively lower temperatures, and the rate is relatively fast. High FA content slows down the carbonization process, and r..

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