Journal article

Rapid Pliocene uplift of Timor

N Nguyen, B Duffy, J Shulmeister, M Quigley



Palynology of exhumed Pliocene marine turbidites and marl beds on the island of Timor provide insights into crustal deformation in the Indonesian region. Between ca. 4.5 and ca. 3 Ma, palynomorphs were sourced primarily from Australia and New Guinea, with increasing swamp and mangrove elements sourced from an emerging proto-Timor. Following ca. 3.1 Ma, pollen and charcoal evidence track the rapid uplift of Timor to a high island, with the progressive appearance of montane and dry, lee-side floristic elements. Early-to mid-Pliocene uplift rates of 0.5-0.6 mm yr-1 increased to 2-5 mm yr-1 in the latest Pliocene. The rapid topographic development of Timor-Leste initiated earlier but followed a ..

View full abstract


Awarded by Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Research Council

Funding Acknowledgements

We thank the Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Research Council (Fast-start grant M1 137) for financial support. Duffy was supported by a New Zealand government Top Achiever Scholarship. Patrick Moss assisted in pollen identification. We thank Norberta da Costa, Jhony Rheis, Jhony Suares, Lamberto Fernandes (all of the Timor Leste Secretariate for Energy and Natural Resources) and Andy Monteiro for assistance, and Robert Hall, Ron Harris, and an anonymous reviewer for their reviews.