Journal article

Effects of in vitro exposure to ivermectin and levamisole on the expression patterns of ABC transporters in Haemonchus contortus larvae

Ali Raza, Steven R Kopp, Neil H Bagnall, Abdul Jabbar, Andrew C Kotze

International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance | ELSEVIER SCI LTD | Published : 2016

Abstract

This study investigated the interaction of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins with ivermectin (IVM) and levamisole (LEV) in larvae of susceptible and resistant isolates of Haemonchus contortus in vitro by measuring transcription patterns following exposure to these anthelmintics. Furthermore, we studied the consequences of drug exposure by measuring the sensitivity of L3 to subsequent exposure to higher drug concentrations using larval migration assays. The most highly transcribed transporter genes in both susceptible and resistant L3 were pgp-9.3, abcf-1, mrp-5, abcf-2, pgp-3, and pgp-10. The resistant isolate showed significantly higher transcription of pgp-1, pgp-9.1 and pgp-9...

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