Potential of the test-negative design for measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review
Sheena G Sullivan, Shuo Feng, Benjamin J Cowling
EXPERT REVIEW OF VACCINES | TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD | Published : 2014
BACKGROUND: The test-negative design is a variant of the case-control study being increasingly used to study influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). In these studies, patients with influenza-like illness are tested for influenza. Vaccine coverage is compared between those testing positive versus those testing negative to estimate VE. OBJECTIVES: We reviewed features in the design, analysis and reporting of 85 published test-negative studies. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified from PubMed, reference lists and email updates. Study eligibility: All studies using the test-negative design reporting end-of-season estimates were included. STUDY APPRAISAL: Design features that may affect the validi..View full abstract
Awarded by Area of Excellence Scheme of the Hong Kong University Grants Committee
Awarded by Harvard Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences
Awarded by NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF GENERAL MEDICAL SCIENCES
BJ Cowling has received research funding from MedImmune Inc. and Sanofi Pasteur for influenza vaccine efficacy and effectiveness studies, and has consulted for Crucell NV on pharmaceutical options for influenza control. This work has received financial support from the Area of Excellence Scheme of the Hong Kong University Grants Committee (grant no. AoE/M-12/06) and the Harvard Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (grant no. U54 GM088558). The WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health. The funding bodies were not involved in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, the writing of the article or the decision to submit it for publication. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed.