Journal article

Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

Mitchell J Machiela, Weiyin Zhou, Eric Karlins, Joshua N Sampson, Neal D Freedman, Qi Yang, Belynda Hicks, Casey Dagnall, Christopher Hautman, Kevin B Jacobs, Christian C Abnet, Melinda C Aldrich, Christopher Amos, Laufey T Amundadottir, Alan A Arslan, Laura E Beane-Freeman, Sonja I Berndt, Amanda Black, William J Blot, Cathryn H Bock Show all

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2016

Grants

Awarded by Broad Center for Genotyping and Analysis


Awarded by Center for Inherited Disease Research


Awarded by Endometrial cancer


Awarded by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (funds from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and National Institute of Health)


Awarded by Fudan Lung Cancer Study Ministry of Health


Awarded by Ministry of Science and Technology


Awarded by National S&T Major Special Project


Awarded by China National High-Tech Research and Development Program


Awarded by National Science Foundation of China


Awarded by National Basic Research Program


Awarded by Scientific and Technological Support Plans from Jiangsu Province


Awarded by Genes and Environment in Lung Cancer, Singapore Study (National Medical Research Council Singapore)


Awarded by National Research Program on Genomic Medicine in Taiwan


Awarded by National Research Program for Biopharmaceuticals in Taiwan


Awarded by National Science Council, Taiwan


Awarded by Guangdong Study (Foundation of Guangdong Science and Technology Department


Awarded by Guangzhou Science and Information Technology Bureau


Awarded by National Natural Science Foundation of China


Awarded by Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province


Awarded by Hong Kong Study (General Research Fund of Research Grant Council, Hong Kong)


Awarded by NCI


Awarded by Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea


Awarded by Ministry of Health


Awarded by Melanoma


Awarded by Korea government (MSIP)


Awarded by NLCS (China National High-Tech Research and Development Program Grant


Awarded by National Key Basic Research Program Grant


Awarded by Nurses' Health Study


Awarded by NIH/NCI


Awarded by Women's Health Initiative (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)



Funding Acknowledgements

Some individuals, studies, and centers received individual support as follows: Broad Center for Genotyping and Analysis (U01HG04424); Cancer Prevention Study-II (American Cancer Society); Center for Inherited Disease Research (U01HG004438, HHSN268200782096C); Endometrial cancer (ROl CA 134958); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (funds from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and National Institute of Health grants (R35 CA 39779, RO1 CA 75977, R03 CA 80636, NO1 HD 2 3166, KO5 CA 92002, CA 105212 and RO1 CA87538)); Fudan Lung Cancer Study (Ministry of Health (201002007); Ministry of Science and Technology (2011BAIO9B00); National S&T Major Special Project (2011ZX09102-010-01); China National High-Tech Research and Development Program (2012AA02A517, 2012AA02A518); National Science Foundation of China (30890034); National Basic Research Program (2012CB944600); Scientific and Technological Support Plans from Jiangsu Province (BE2010715)); Gene-Environment Association Studies (Coordinating Center:U01 HG004446, Manuscript preparation: P01-GM099568); Genes and Environment in Lung Cancer, Singapore Study (National Medical Research Council Singapore grant (NMRC/0897/2004, NMRC/1075/2006); Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) of Singapore); Genetic Epidemiological Study of Lung Adenocarcinoma (National Research Program on Genomic Medicine in Taiwan (DOH98-TD-G-111-015); National Research Program for Biopharmaceuticals in Taiwan (DOH 100-TD-PB-111TM013); National Science Council, Taiwan (NSC 100-2319-B-400-001)); Guangdong Study (Foundation of Guangdong Science and Technology Department (2006B60101010, 2007A032000002, 2011A030400010); Guangzhou Science and Information Technology Bureau (2011Y2-00014); Chinese Lung Cancer Research Foundation; National Natural Science Foundation of China (81101549); Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (S2011010000792)); Hong Kong Study (General Research Fund of Research Grant Council, Hong Kong (781511M)); Intramural Research Program of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH; Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Library of Medicine; Intramural Research Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Japanese Female Lung Cancer Collaborative Study (Grants-in-Aid from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare for Research on Applying Health Technology and for the 3rd-term Comprehensive 10-year Strategy for Cancer Control; National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund; Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas and on Innovative Area from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Culture and Technology of Japan; NCI (R01-CA121210)); Korea Health Technology R&D Project (Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI14C0066)); Lung cancer (ZO1CP010200); Lung health (U01HG004738); Ministry of Health (201002007); Ministry of Science and Technology (2011BAIO9B00); Melanoma (NCI R29CA70334, R01CA100264, P50CA093459); Multiethnic Cohort Study (Infrastructure grant (U01 CA164973) and U01 CA098758); National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF-2014R1A2A2A05003665)); NLCS (China National High-Tech Research and Development Program Grant (2009AA022705); Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institution; National Key Basic Research Program Grant (2011CB503805)); Nurses' Health Study (P01 CA87969, ROl CA49449); Nurses' Health Study II (UM1 CA176726, ROl 67262); OpPancreatic cancer (Mayo Clinic SPORE in Pancreatic Cancer: P50CA102701); Prostate cancer (U01HG004726, NCI: CA63464, CA54281, CA1326792, RC2 CA148085); Shanghai Women's Health Cohort Study (National Institutes of Health (R37 CA70867); National Cancer Institute intramural research program; NCI Intramural Research Program contract (NO2 CP1101066)); Shenyang Lung Cancer Study (National Nature Science Foundation of China (81102194); Liaoning Provincial Department of Education (LS2010168); China Medical Board (00726)); Singapore Chinese Health Study (NIH grants: NCI ROl CA55069, R35 CA53890, ROl CA80205, and ROl CA144034); South Korea Multi-Center Lung Cancer Study (National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (2011-0016106); National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry of Health &Welfare, Republic of Korea (0720550-2); (A010250)); Tianjin Lung Cancer Study (Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (PCSIRT); China (IRT1076), Tianjin Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Foundation for Cancer Research US); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (institutional support for the Center for Translational and Public Health Genomics (NIH grant P50 CA 91846)); Women's Health Initiative (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN268201100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C); Wuhan lung cancer study (National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2011CB503800)) and Yunnan Lung Cancer Study (Intramural program of U.S. National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute). Melinda C. Aldrich was supported by NIH/NCI grant K07 CA 172294. We would like to thank the participants and staff of the NHS and NHSII cohorts for their valuable contributions as well as the following state registries for their help: AL, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, IA, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, NE, NH, NJ, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, WY. This study was approved by the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) Human Investigations Committee. Certain data used in this publication were obtained from the DPH. The authors assume full responsibility for the analyses and interpretation of these data. The Women's Health Initiative would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their participation: Program Office: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland) Jacques Rossouw, Shari Ludlam, Dale Burwen, Joan McGowan, Leslie Ford, and Nancy Geller; Clinical Coordinating Center: (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA) Garnet Anderson, Ross Prentice, Andrea LaCroix, and Charles Kooperberg; Investigators and Academic Centers: (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA) JoAnn E. Manson; (MedStar Health Research Institute/Howard University, Washington, DC) Barbara V. Howard; (Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, CA). Marcia L. Stefanick; (The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH) Rebecca Jackson; (University of Arizona, Tucson/Phoenix, AZ) Cynthia A. Thomson; (University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY) Jean Wactawski-Wende; (University of Florida, Gainesville/Jacksonville, FL) Marian Limacher; (University of Iowa, Iowa City/Davenport, IA) Robert Wallace; (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA) Lewis Kuller; (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC) Sally Shumaker.Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC) Sally Shumaker.