Kim Sawyer, Howard Sankey, Ric Lombardo
MEASUREMENT | ELSEVIER SCI LTD | Published : 2016
Measurement is a special type of evaluation that is more exact than either opinion or estimation. In the social sciences, in particular, most evaluations are not measures, but rather mixtures of opinion and estimation. Over-measurement represents anchoring to evaluations which are not measures. For an over-measured characteristic, single measures are used when instead a portfolio of possible measures should be used. There are three implications. First, measurements of characteristics which depend on the over-measured characteristic are biased. Secondly, decisions which depend on the over-measured characteristic are biased. Thirdly, over-measurement biases the measurement of uncertainty.