Journal article

Induction of microglial toll-like receptor 4 by prothrombin kringle-2: a potential pathogenic mechanism in Parkinson's disease

Won-Ho Shin, Min-Tae Jeon, Eunju Leem, So-Yoon Won, Kyoung Hoon Jeong, Sang-Joon Park, Catriona McLean, Sung Joong Lee, Byung Kwan Jin, Un Ju Jung, Sang Ryoung Kim



Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may play an important role in the initiation and progression of dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for the activation of microglia in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether patients with PD exhibit an increase in TLR4 expression in the brain, and whether there is a correlation between the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) and microglial TLR4. In the present study, we first observed that the levels of pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 were increased in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with PD. In rat and mouse brains, intranigral injection of pKr-2, which is not di..

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