Journal article

Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

Kate Lawrenson, Siddhartha Kar, Karen McCue, Karoline Kuchenbaeker, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan Tyrer, Jonathan Beesley, Susan J Ramus, Qiyuan Li, Melissa K Delgado, Janet M Lee, Kristiina Aittomaki, Irene L Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Volker Arndt, Banu K Arun, Brita Arver, Elisa V Bandera, Monica Barile, Rosa B Barkardottir Show all

Nature Communications | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2016

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Awarded by National Cancer Institute (USA)


Awarded by Dutch Cancer Society


Awarded by Fondo de Investigacion Sanitario


Awarded by California Breast Cancer Research Fund


Awarded by National Institutes of Health


Awarded by Lon V Smith Foundation


Awarded by Deutsche Krebshilfe


Awarded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Germany


Awarded by Academy of Finland


Awarded by United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC)


Awarded by California Breast Cancer Research Program


Awarded by National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program


Awarded by 'Stichting tegen Kanker'


Awarded by Deutsche Krebshilfe e.V.


Awarded by Italian citizens


Awarded by Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the 'CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer' program


Awarded by Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export Trade


Awarded by Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education


Awarded by Biomedical Research Council, Singapore


Awarded by National medical Research Council, Singapore


Awarded by NIH


Awarded by Academy of Finland (Center of Excellence)


Awarded by Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure


Awarded by Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) Network


Awarded by Yorkshire Cancer Research


Awarded by Cancer Research UK


Awarded by Biomedical Research Council


Awarded by Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer


Awarded by Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group research grant


Awarded by American Cancer Society


Awarded by California Cancer Research Program


Awarded by Canadian Institutes for Health Research


Awarded by Danish Cancer Society


Awarded by Imperial Experimental Cancer Research Centre


Awarded by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education


Awarded by US National Cancer Institute


Awarded by US Army Medical Research and Material Command


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia


Awarded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research


Awarded by state of Baden-Wurttemberg through Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm


Awarded by Lon V. Smith Foundation


Awarded by National Cancer Institute


Awarded by Lithuania (BFBOCC-LT): Research Council of Lithuania grant


Awarded by Spanish Association against Cancer


Awarded by RTICC


Awarded by City of Hope Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Network (COH-CCGCRN)


Awarded by Cancer Research - UK


Awarded by University of Kansas Cancer Center


Awarded by German Cancer Aid


Awarded by Non-Therapeutic Subject Registry Shared Resource at Georgetown University (NIH/NCI grant)


Awarded by GOA grant (Ghent University)


Awarded by ISCIII (Spain)


Awarded by Pink Ribbon grant


Awarded by BBMRI grant


Awarded by Hungarian Research Grants


Awarded by Norwegian EEA Financial Mechanism


Awarded by Catalan Health Institute and Autonomous Government of Catalonia


Awarded by Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance


Awarded by National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, Republic of Korea


Awarded by NCI Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer


Awarded by U.S. Department of Defence Ovarian Cancer Idea award


Awarded by MH CZ - DRO (MMCI)


Awarded by State Budget of the Czech Republic (RECAMO)


Awarded by Charles University in Prague project


Awarded by Westat, Inc, Rockville, MD


Awarded by Russian Federation for Basic Research


Awarded by NRG Oncology Statistical and Data Center


Awarded by NRG Oncology's Cancer Prevention and Control Committee


Awarded by National Institutes of Health (NIH)


Awarded by European Community's Seventh Framework Programme


Awarded by Post-Cancer GWAS initiative (GAME-ON initiative)


Awarded by Department of Defence



Awarded by Medical Research Council


Awarded by Ovarian Cancer Action


Funding Acknowledgements

Funding: BCAC: The Australian Breast Cancer Family Study (ABCFS) was supported by grant UM1 CA164920 from the National Cancer Institute (USA). The content of this manuscript does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Cancer Institute or any of the collaborating centres in the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the USA Government or the BCFR. The ABCFS was also supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, the New South Wales Cancer Council, the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (Australia) and the Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium. The ABCS study was supported by the Dutch Cancer Society [grants NKI 2007-3839; 2009 4363]. The ACP study is funded by the Breast Cancer Research Trust, UK. The BBCS is funded by Cancer Research UK and Breakthrough Breast Cancer and acknowledges NHS funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, and the National Cancer Research Network (NCRN). ES is supported by NIHR Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London, United Kingdom. IT is supported by the Oxford Biomedical Research Centre. The BSUCH study was supported by the Dietmar-Hopp Foundation, the Helmholtz Society and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). The CGPS was supported by the Chief Physician Johan Boserup and Lise Boserup Fund, the Danish Medical Research Council and Herlev HospitalThe CNIO-BCS was supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, the Red Tematica de Investigacion Cooperativa en Cancer and grants from the Asociacion Espanola Contra el Cancer and the Fondo de Investigacion Sanitario (PI11/00923 and PI12/00070). The CTS was initially supported by the California Breast Cancer Act of 1993 and the California Breast Cancer Research Fund (contract 97-10500) and is currently funded through the National Institutes of Health (R01 CA77398). Collection of cancer incidence data was supported by the California Department of Public Health as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885. HAC receives support from the Lon V Smith Foundation (LVS39420). The ESTHER study was supported by a grant from the Baden Wurttemberg Ministry of Science, Research and Arts. Additional cases were recruited in the context of the VERDI study, which was supported by a grant from the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe). The GC-HBOC was supported by Deutsche Krebshilfe (107 352). The GENICA was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Germany grants 01KW9975/5, 01KW9976/8, 01KW9977/0 and 01KW0114, the Robert Bosch Foundation, Stuttgart, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg, the Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, as well as the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany. The HEBCS was financially supported by the Helsinki University Central Hospital Research Fund, Academy of Finland (266528), the Finnish Cancer Society, The Nordic Cancer Union and the Sigrid Juselius Foundation. The HMBCS was supported by a grant from the Friends of Hannover Medical School and by the Rudolf Bartling Foundation.The KBCP was financially supported by the special Government Funding (EVO) of Kuopio University Hospital grants, Cancer Fund of North Savo, the Finnish Cancer Organizations, and by the strategic funding of the University of Eastern Finland. kConFab is supported by a grant from the National Breast Cancer Foundation, and previously by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Queensland Cancer Fund, the Cancer Councils of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia, and the Cancer Foundation of Western Australia. Financial support for the AOCS was provided by the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command [DAMD17-01-1-0729], Cancer Council Victoria, Queensland Cancer Fund, Cancer Council New South Wales, Cancer Council South Australia, The Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Cancer Council Tasmania and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC; 400413, 400281, 199600). LAABC is supported by grants (1RB-0287, 3PB-0102, 5PB-0018, 10PB-0098) from the California Breast Cancer Research Program. Incident breast cancer cases were collected by the USC Cancer Surveillance Program (CSP), which is supported under subcontract by the California Department of Health. The CSP is also part of the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, under contract number N01CN25403. LMBC is supported by the 'Stichting tegen Kanker' (232-2008 and 196-2010). Diether Lambrechts is supported by the FWO and the KULPFV/10/016-SymBioSysII. The MARIE study was supported by the Deutsche Krebshilfe e.V. [70-2892-BR I, 106332, 108253, 108419], the Hamburg Cancer Society, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Germany [01KH0402]. (MBCSG) is supported by grants from the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC) and by funds from the Italian citizens who allocated the 5/1000 share of their tax payment in support of the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to Italian laws (INT-Institutional strategic projects '5x1000'). The work of MTLGEBCS was supported by the Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the 'CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer' program - grant # CRN-87521 and the Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export Trade - grant # PSR-SIIRI-701. MYBRCA is funded by research grants from the Malaysian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (UM.C/HlR/MOHE/06) and Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation (CARIF). Additional controls were recruited by the Singapore Eye Research Institute, which was supported by a grant from the Biomedical Research Council (BMRC08/1/35/19/550), Singapore and the National medical Research Council, Singapore (NMRC/CG/SERI/2010). The NBHS was supported by NIH grant R01CA100374. Biological sample preparation was conducted the Survey and Biospecimen Shared Resource, which is supported by P30 CA68485. The OBCS was supported by research grants from the Finnish Cancer Foundation, the Academy of Finland (grant number 250083, 122715 and Center of Excellence grant number 251314), the Finnish Cancer Foundation, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, the University of Oulu, the University of Oulu Support Foundation and the special Governmental EVO funds for Oulu University Hospital-based research activities.The Ontario Familial Breast Cancer Registry (OFBCR) was supported by grant UM1 CA164920 from the National Cancer Institute (USA). The content of this manuscript does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Cancer Institute or any of the collaborating centres in the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the USA Government or the BCFR. The ORIGO study was supported by the Dutch Cancer Society (RUL 1997-1505) and the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL CP16). The PBCS was funded by Intramural Research Funds of the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, USA. The pKARMA study was supported by Marit and Hans Rausings Initiative Against Breast CancerThe RBCS was funded by the Dutch Cancer Society (DDHK 2004-3124, DDHK 2009-4318). The SASBAC study was supported by funding from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research of Singapore (A<SUP>star</SUP>STAR), the US National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. The SBCGS was supported primarily by NIH grants R01CA64277, R01CA148667, and R37CA70867. Biological sample preparation was conducted the Survey and Biospecimen Shared Resource, which is supported by P30 CA68485. The scientific development and funding of this project were, in part, supported by the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) Network U19 CA148065. The SBCS was supported by Yorkshire Cancer Research S295, S299, S305PA and Sheffield Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre. SEARCH is funded by a programme grant from Cancer Research UK [C490/A10124] and supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Cambridge. SGBCC is funded by the NUS start-up Grant, National University Cancer Institute Singapore (NCIS) Centre Grant and the NMRC Clinician Scientist Award. Additional controls were recruited by the Singapore Consortium of Cohort Studies-Multi-ethnic cohort (SCCS-MEC), which was funded by the Biomedical Research Council, grant number: 05/1/21/19/425. SKKDKFZS is supported by the DKFZ. The TNBCC was supported by: a Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer (CA116201), a grant from the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, a generous gift from the David F. and Margaret T. Grohne Family Foundation, the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group research grant (HR R_BG/04) and the Greek General Secretary for Research and Technology (GSRT) Program, Research Excellence II, the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF), and Greek national funds through the Operational Program 'Education and Lifelong Learning' of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - ARISTEIA. The UKBGS is funded by Breakthrough Breast Cancer and the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), London. ICR acknowledges NHS funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre.OCAC: Funding of the constituent studies was provided by the American Cancer Society (CRTG-00-196-01-CCE); the California Cancer Research Program (00-01389 V-20170, N01-CN25403, 2II0200); the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (MOP-86727); Cancer Council Victoria; Cancer Council Queensland; Cancer Council New South Wales; Cancer Council South Australia; Cancer Council Tasmania; Cancer Foundation of Western Australia; the Cancer Institute of New Jersey; Cancer Research UK (C490/A6187, C490/A10119, C490/A10124, C536/A13086, C536/A6689); the Celma Mastry Ovarian Cancer Foundation; the Danish Cancer Society (94-222-52); the ELAN Program of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg; the Eve Appeal; the Helsinki University Central Hospital Research Fund; Helse Vest; Imperial Experimental Cancer Research Centre (C1312/A15589); the Norwegian Cancer Society; the Norwegian Research Council; the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund; Nationaal Kankerplan of Belgium; Grant-in-Aid for the Third Term Comprehensive 10-Year Strategy for Cancer Control from the Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare of Japan; the L and S Milken Foundation; the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (4 PO5C 028 14, 2 PO5A 068 27); Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (UM.C/HlR/MOHE/06) and Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation; the Roswell Park Cancer Institute Alliance Foundation; the US National Cancer Institute (K07-CA095666, K07-CA143047, K22-CA138563, N01-CN55424, N01-PC067010, N01-PC035137, P01-CA017054, P01-CA087696, P30-CA15083, P50-CA105009, P50-CA136393, R01-CA014089, R01-CA016056, R01-CA017054, R01-CA049449, R01-CA050385, R01-CA054419, R01-CA058598, R01-CA058860, R01-CA061107, R01-CA061132, R01-CA063682, R01-CA064277, R01-CA067262, R01-CA071766, R01-CA074850, R01-CA076016, R01-CA080742, R01-CA080978, R01-CA083918, R01-CA087538, R01-CA092044, R01-095023, R01-CA106414, R01-CA122443, R01-CA112523, R01-CA114343, R01-CA126841, R01-CA136924, R01-CA149429, R03-CA113148, R03-CA115195, R37-CA070867, R37-CA70867, U01-CA069417, U01-CA071966, R01-CA063678 and Intramural research funds); the US Army Medical Research and Material Command (DAMD17-98-1-8659, DAMD17-01-1-0729, DAMD17-02-1-0666, DAMD17-02-10669, W81XWH-10-1-0280); the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (199600 and 400281); the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research (01 GB 9401); the state of Baden-Wurttemberg through Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm (P.685); the Minnesota Ovarian Cancer Alliance; the Mayo Foundation; the Fred C. and Katherine B. Andersen Foundation; the Lon V. Smith Foundation (LVS-39420); the Oak Foundation; the OHSU Foundation; the Mermaid I project; the Rudolf-Bartling Foundation; the UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centres at the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, University College Hospital 'Womens Health Theme' and the Royal Marsden Hospital; WorkSafeBC.CIMBA (BCFR-all): This work was supported by grant UM1 CA164920 from the National Cancer Institute. The content of this manuscript does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Cancer Institute or any of the collaborating centres in the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US Government or the BCFR. (BFBOCC-LT) BFBOCC is partly supported by: Lithuania (BFBOCC-LT): Research Council of Lithuania grant LIG-07/2012; (BIDMC) BIDMC is supported by the Breast Cancer Research Foundation. (BMBSA) BRCA-gene mutations and breast cancer in South African women (BMBSA) was supported by grants from the Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA) to Elizabeth J. van Rensburg. (BRICOH) SLN was partially supported by the Morris and Horowitz Familes Endowed Professorship. (CBCS) This work was supported by the NEYE Foundation. (CNIO) This work was partially supported by Spanish Association against Cancer (AECC08), RTICC 06/0020/1060, FISPI08/1120, Mutua Madrilena Foundation (FMMA) and SAF2010-20493 (COH-CCGCRN) City of Hope Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Network and the Hereditary Cancer Research Registry, supported in part by Award Number RC4CA153828 (PI: J. Weitzel) from the National Cancer Institute and the Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. (CONSIT TEAM) Funds from Italian citizens who allocated the 5x1000 share of their tax payment in support of the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, according to Italian laws (INT-Institutional strategic projects '5x1000') to Siranoush Manoukian. (CORE) The CIMBA data management and data analysis were supported by Cancer Research - UK grants C12292/A11174 and C1287/A10118. SH is supported by an NHMRC Program Grant to GCT. ACA is a Cancer Research - UK Senior Cancer Research Fellow. (DEMOKRITOS) This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program 'Education and Lifelong Learning' of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program of the General Secretariat for Research and Technology: ARISTEIA. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.(DKFZ) The DKFZ study was supported by the DKFZ. (EMBRACE) EMBRACE is supported by Cancer Research UK Grants C1287/A10118 and C1287/A11990. D. Gareth Evans and Fiona Lalloo are supported by an NIHR grant to the Biomedical Research Centre, Manchester. The Investigators at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust are supported by an NIHR grant to the Biomedical Research Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust. (FCCC) The authors acknowledge support from The University of Kansas Cancer Center (P30 CA168524) and the Kansas Bioscience Authority Eminent Scholar Program. (GC-HBOC) The German Consortium of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC) is supported by the German Cancer Aid (grant no 109076, Rita K. Schmutzler) and by the Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC). (GEMO) The study was supported by the Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer; the Association 'Le cancer du sein, parlons-en!' Award; the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the 'CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer' program and the French National Institute of Cancer (INCa).(GEORGETOWN) CI received support from the Non-Therapeutic Subject Registry Shared Resource at Georgetown University (NIH/NCI grant P30-CA051008), the Fisher Center for Familial Cancer Research, and Swing Fore the Cure. (G-FAST) Kim De Leeneer is supported by GOA grant BOF10/GOA/019 (Ghent University) and spearhead financing of Ghent University Hospital. (HCSC) HCSC supported by a grant RD12/0036/0006 and 12/00539 from ISCIII (Spain), partially supported by European Regional Development FEDER funds. (HEBCS) The HEBCS was financially supported by the Helsinki University Hospital Research Fund, Academy of Finland (266528), the Finnish Cancer Society and the Sigrid Juselius Foundation. (HEBON) The HEBON study is supported by the Dutch Cancer Society grants NKI1998-1854, NKI2004-3088, NKI2007-3756, the Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research grant NWO 91109024, the Pink Ribbon grant 110005 and the BBMRI grant NWO 184.021.007/CP46. HEBON thanks the registration teams of the Comprehensive Cancer Centre Netherlands and Comprehensive Centre South (together the Netherlands Cancer Registry) and PALGA (Dutch Pathology Registry) for part of the data collection. (HRBCP) HRBCP is supported by The Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Dr Ellen Li Charitable Foundation, Hong Kong (HUNBOCS) Hungarian Breast and Ovarian Cancer Study was supported by Hungarian Research Grants KTIA-OTKA CK-80745, OTKA K-112228 and the Norwegian EEA Financial Mechanism Hu0115/NA/2008-3/OP-9. (ICO) Contract grant sponsor: Asociacion Espanola Contra el Cancer, Spanish Health Research Fund; Carlos III Health Institute; Catalan Health Institute and Autonomous Government of Catalonia. Contract grant numbers: ISCIIIRETIC RD06/0020/1051, RD12/0036/008, PI10/01422, PI10/00748, PI13/00285, PIE13/00022, 2009SGR290 and 2014SGR364. (IHCC) The IHCC was supported by Grant PBZ_KBN_122/P05/2004(ILUH) The ILUH group was supported by the Icelandic Association 'Walking for Breast Cancer Research' and by the Landspitali University Hospital Research Fund. (INHERIT) This work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the 'CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer' program, the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance-grant # 019511 and the Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export Trade - grant # PSR-SIIRI-701. (IOVHBOCS) IOVHBOCS is supported by Ministero della Salute and '5x1,000' Istituto Oncologico Veneto grant. (IPOBCS) This study was in part supported by Liga Portuguesa Contra o Cancro.(KCONFAB) kConFab is supported by a grant from the National Breast Cancer Foundation, and previously by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Queensland Cancer Fund, the Cancer Councils of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia, and the Cancer Foundation of Western Australia; (KOHBRA) KOHBRA is supported by a grant from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, Republic of Korea (1020350). (MAYO) MAYO is supported by NIH grants CA116167, CA128978 and CA176785, an NCI Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer (CA116201), a U.S. Department of Defence Ovarian Cancer Idea award (W81XWH-10-1-0341), a grant from the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, a generous gift from the David F. and Margaret T. Grohne Family Foundation and the Ting Tsung and Wei Fong Chao Foundation.(MCGILL) Jewish General Hospital Weekend to End Breast Cancer, Quebec Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export Trade (MODSQUAD) MODSQUAD was supported by MH CZ - DRO (MMCI, 00209805) and by the European Regional Development Fund and the State Budget of the Czech Republic (RECAMO, CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0101) to LF, and by Charles University in Prague project UNCE204024 (MZ). (MSKCC) MSKCC is supported by grants from the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, the Robert and Kate Niehaus Clinical Cancer Genetics Initiative, and the Andrew Sabin Research Fund. (NAROD) 1R01 CA149429-01. (NCI) The research of Drs MH Greene, JT Loud and PL Mai was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the US National Cancer Institute, NIH, and by support services contracts NO2-CP-11019-50 and N02-CP-65504 with Westat, Inc, Rockville, MD. (NICCC) NICCC is supported by Clalit Health Services in Israel. Some of it's activities are supported by the Israel Cancer Association and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF), NY. (NNPIO) This work has been supported by the Russian Federation for Basic Research (grants 13-04-92613, 14-04-93959 and 15-04-01744). (NRG Oncology) This study was supported by National Cancer Institute grants to the NRG Oncology Administrative Office and Tissue Bank (CA 27469), the NRG Oncology Statistical and Data Center (CA 37517), and NRG Oncology's Cancer Prevention and Control Committee (CA 101165). (OSU CCG) OSUCCG is supported by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. (PBCS) This work was supported by the ITT (Istituto Toscano Tumori) grants 2011-2013. (SEABASS) Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Higher Education (UM. C/HlR/MOHE/06) and Cancer Research Initiatives Foundation. (SMC) This project was partially funded through a grant by the Isreal cancer association and the funding for the Israeli Inherited breast cancer consortium (SWE-BRCA) SWE-BRCA collaborators are supported by the Swedish Cancer Society. (UCHICAGO) UCHICAGO is supported by NCI Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer (CA125183), R01 CA142996, 1U01CA161032 and by the Ralph and Marion Falk Medical Research Trust, the Entertainment Industry Fund National Women's Cancer Research Alliance and the Breast Cancer research Foundation. OIO is an ACS Clinical Research Professor.(UCLA) Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Foundation; Breast Cancer Research Foundation. (UCSF) UCSF Cancer Risk Program and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center. (UKFOCR) UKFOCR was supported by a project grant from CRUK to Paul Pharoah. (UPENN) National Institutes of Health (NIH) (R01-CA102776 and R01-CA083855; Breast Cancer Research Foundation; Susan G. Komen Foundation for the cure, Basser Research Center for BRCA. (UPITT/MWH) Frieda G. and Saul F. Shapira BRCA-Associated Cancer Research Program; Hackers for Hope Pittsburgh. (VFCTG) Victorian Cancer Agency, Cancer Australia, National Breast Cancer Foundation.Funding for the iCOGS infrastructure came from: the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no 223175 (HEALTH-F2-2009-223175) (COGS), Cancer Research UK (C1287/A10118, C1287/A 10710, C12292/A11174, C1281/A12014, C5047/A8384, C5047/A15007, C5047/A10692, C8197/A16565), the National Institutes of Health (CA128978) and Post-Cancer GWAS initiative (1U19 CA148537, 1U19 CA148065 and 1U19 CA148112 - the GAME-ON initiative), the Department of Defence (W81XWH-10-1-0341), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) for the CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer, Komen Foundation for the Cure, the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, and the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund and grants R01-CA122443 and P50-CA136393.