Jellyfish envenoming syndromes: unknown toxic mechanisms and unproven therapies
PM Bailey, M Little, GA Jelinek, JA Wilce
The Medical Journal of Australia | AUSTRALASIAN MED PUBL CO LTD | Published : 2003
Interest in envenoming syndromes caused by Australian jellyfish has been intense since the deaths in early 2002 of two tourists in Queensland, attributed to the Irukandji syndrome. We review current knowledge of these envenoming syndromes, mechanisms of venom action and therapy, focusing on the deadly box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, and the array of jellyfish thought to cause the Irukandji syndrome. Current understanding of jellyfish venom activity is very limited, and many treatments are unproven and based on anecdote.