Journal article

Prevalence and Correction of Near Vision Impairment at Seven Sites in China, India, Nepal, Niger, South Africa, and the United States

Mingguang He, Amza Abdou, Kovin S Naidoo, Yuddha D Sapkota, RD Thulasiraj, Rohit Varma, Jialiang Zhao, Leon B Ellwein

American Journal of Ophthalmology | ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC | Published : 2012


PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of near vision impairment and use of corrective spectacles among middle-aged and older adults in different settings and ethnic groups. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: People aged ≥ 35 years were randomly selected with cluster sampling in 4 rural settings in Shunyi (China), Kaski (Nepal), Madurai (India), and Dosso (Niger); 1 semi-urban area in Durban (South Africa); and 2 urban settings in Guangzhou (China) and Los Angeles (USA). Near visual acuity (VA), with and without presenting near correction, was measured at 40 cm using a logMAR near vision tumbling E chart. Subjects with uncorrected binocular near VA ≤ 20/40 were tested wit..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland under National Institutes of Health [Bethesda, Maryland]

Funding Acknowledgements

ALL AUTHORS HAVE COMPLETED AND SUBMITTED THE ICMJE FORM FOR DISCLOSURE OF POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF Interest. Publication of this article was supported by the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (under National Institutes of Health [Bethesda, Maryland] contract no.: N01-EY-2103). The authors do not have any proprietary or commercial interest to disclose. Involved in design of study (M.H., A.A., K.S.N., Y.D.S., R.D.T., R.V., J.Z., L.B.E.); conduct of the study (M.H., A.A., K.S.N., Y.D.S., R.D.T., R.V., J.Z.); analysis and interpretation (M.H., L.B.E.); preparation of the manuscript (M.H., L.B.E.); critical revision (M.H., A.A., K.S.N., Y.D.S., R.D.T., R.V., J.Z., L.B.E.); final approval (M.H., L.B.E.); data collection (M.H., A.A., K.S.N., Y.D.S., R.D.T., R.V., J.Z.); statistical expertise (M.H., L.B.E.); obtaining funding (L.B.E.); literature search (M.H.); and administrative support (L.B.E.). Ethical approval for conducting this cross-sectional study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Ethics Committee at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center; the Programme National de Lutte Comte la Cecite (PNLCC); the University of KwaZulu Natal-AVRI; the Nepal Netra Jyoti Sangh; the Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology; the University of Southern California; and the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Human subject research approval of the protocol was also cleared by the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects. The study protocol adhered to the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. Written, informed consent was obtained from all participants. Administrative and technical oversight for WHO was provided by Drs Pierre Huguet and Ivo Kocur, both of whom were from the World Health Organization, Switzerland.