Book Chapter


SRC Howie, DH Hamer, S GRAHAM

International Encyclopedia of Public Health | Elsevier | Published : 2017


Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is the leading cause of death in infants and young children with the majority of these deaths occurring in low income countries. Risk factors affecting incidence and outcome include extremes of age, poor nutrition, immunosuppression, environmental exposures and socioeconomic determinants. Pneumonia can be caused by a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses and fungi, and the etiology varies by epidemiological setting, comorbidities and whether the pneumonia is community-acquired or hospital-acquired. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia while Gram negative bact..

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