Focal cortical dysplasia: a neuropathological and developmental perspective.
DR Cotter, M Honavar, I Everall
Epilepsy Res | Published : 1999
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a rare, sporadic disorder which is a recognised cause of chronic epilepsy. It is proposed to result from disordered neuronal migration and differentiation and has characteristic histological features which include disturbed cortical lamination, large abnormal neurons and the presence of large balloon cells with glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic eccentric nuclei. These latter express both glial and neuronal markers indicative of abnormal neuroglial differentiation. In this paper we review the current literature on the neuropathology of FCD and discuss potential mechanisms. We focus on growth factors, signalling pathways and candidate genes with kn..View full abstract