Journal article

Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia

Shane A Liddelow, Kevin A Guttenplan, Laura EC Larke, Frederick C Bennett, Christopher J Bohlen, Lucas Schirmer, Mariko L Bennett, Alexandra E Munch, Won-Suk Chung, Todd C Peterson, Daniel K Wilton, Arnaud Frouin, Brooke A Napier, Nikhil Panicker, Manoj Kumar, Marion S Buckwalter, David H Rowitch, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Beth Stevens Show all

Nature | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2017

Grants

Awarded by National Institutes of Health


Awarded by Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund


Awarded by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council


Awarded by NEI


Awarded by Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation


Awarded by German Research Foundation (DFG)


Awarded by Foundation's Parkinson's Disease Program


Awarded by Stanford Alzheimer's disease research Centre


Awarded by Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


Funding Acknowledgements

We thank R. Vance (UC Berkeley) for gifting Il-1 alpha<SUP>-/-</SUP> mice and E. R. Stanley (Albert Einstein College of Medicine) for gifting Csf1r<SUP>-/-</SUP> mice. This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01 AG048814, B. A. B.; RO1 DA15043, B. A. B.; P50 NS38377, V. L. D. and T. M. D.) Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation (B. A. B.), the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research (B. A. B.), Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation (B. A. B.), the JPB Foundation (B. A. B., T. M. D.), the Cure Alzheimer's Fund (B. A. B.), the Glenn Foundation (B. A. B.), the Esther B O'Keeffe Charitable Foundation (B. A. B.), the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund (2013-MSCRFII-0105-00, V. L. D.; 2012-MSCRFII-0268-00, T. M. D.; 2013-MSCRFII-0105-00, T. M. D.; 2014-MSCRFF-0665, M. K.). S. A. L. was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (GNT1052961), and the Glenn Foundation Glenn Award. L. E. C. was funded by a Merck Research Laboratories postdoctoral fellowship (administered by the Life Science Research Foundation). W.-S. C. was supported by a career transition grant from NEI (K99EY024690). C. J. B. was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation (DRG-2125-12). L. S. was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the German Research Foundation (DFG, SCHI 1330/1-1). T. M. D. is the Leonard and Madlyn Abramson Professor in Neurodegenerative Diseases. The authors (N. P., M. K., V. L. D. and T. M. D.) acknowledge the joint participation by the Adrienne Helis Malvin Medical Research Foundation through its direct engagement in the continuous active conduct of medical research in conjunction with The Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Foundation's Parkinson's Disease Program M-2014. We thank the Stanford Alzheimer's disease research Centre (AG047366), the Stanford Health Care Brain Bank, The Arizona Ageing & Disability Resource Centers (AG019610) and Banner Sun Health for providing control and AD brain samples. We thank R. Reynolds and D. Gveric for providing control and MS brain samples from the UK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank, funded by the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (registered charity 207495). We would like to thank O. Pletnikova and J. C. Troncoso from the Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, for providing control and PD human sections. We thank the Neurological Foundation of New Zealand Human Brain Bank at the University of Auckland for Control and HD tissue sections for IHC analysis. We thank R. Myers at Boston University Medical Centre for control and HD tissue for q-RTPCR analysis. We thank J. Trojanoswki at the University of Pennsylvania Institute on Aging for AD and ALS tissue samples for in situ analysis. We thank A. Mosberger and A. Rosenthal for careful review of the manuscript. We thank T. Jessell and T. Maniatis for their insightful discussions on motor neuron subtypes. We thank V. and S. Coates for their generous support.