Journal article

Beyond General Systems Theory: A Constructivist Perspective

N Low

Urban Studies | Published : 1982

Abstract

Since modem town planning was first promulgated in the nineteenth century it has developed through three phases. Each phase has built on earlier ideas and grown out of the testing of these ideas in practice. The first phase was dominated by the visionary concerned with the physical city; the focus of the second phase was the decision-making structures which create the city. In the third and current phase the town planner has emerged as just one species of government planner. Such a planner must be aware of the complexity of human interaction and must be guided by her own values and political philosophy. General systems theory provided the dominant conceptual framework for the second phase bu..

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