Limb patterning genes and heterochronic development of the emu wing bud
Craig A Smith, Peter G Farlie, Nadia M Davidson, Kelly N Roeszler, Claire Hirst, Alicia Oshlack, David M Lambert
EvoDevo | BMC | Published : 2016
BACKGROUND: The forelimb of the flightless emu is a vestigial structure, with greatly reduced wing elements and digit loss. To explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the evolution of vestigial wings and loss of flight in the emu, key limb patterning genes were examined in developing embryos. METHODS: Limb development was compared in emu versus chicken embryos. Immunostaining for cell proliferation markers was used to analyze growth of the emu forelimb and hindlimb buds. Expression patterns of limb patterning genes were studied, using whole-mount in situ hybridization (for mRNA localization) and RNA-seq (for mRNA expression levels). RESULTS: The forelimb of the emu embr..View full abstract
This research was made possible through an Australian Research Council (ARC) grant awarded to DL and CAS.