A bicausal bond graph representation of operational amplifiers
PJ Gawthrop, D Palmer
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering | Published : 2003
The virtual earth concept, well known to designers of active electronic circuits with operational amplifier components, is shown to have a novel bicausal bond graph interpretation. This leads to simplified bond graph modelling of such circuits. Some simple operational amplifier circuits. together with a more complex active filter, are used to illustrate the approach. A complex electromechanical system shows that the method is useful in creating a unified bond graph model of systems involving both analogue electronic and mechanical systems.