Journal article

Cotransmission in the autonomic nervous system.

Geoffrey Burnstock

Handbook of clinical neurology | Published : 2013


After some early hints, cotransmission was proposed in 1976 and then "chemical coding" later established for sympathetic nerves (noradrenaline/norepinephrine, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and neuropeptide Y), parasympathetic nerves (acetylcholine, ATP, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)), enteric nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory nerves (ATP, nitric oxide, and VIP), and sensory-motor nerves (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and ATP). ATP is a primitive signaling molecule that has been retained as a cotransmitter in most, if not all, nerve types in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuropeptides coreleased with small molecule neurotransmitters i..

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