Journal article

Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages - Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Study

David Hammond, Geoffrey T Fong, Ron Borland, K Michael Cummings, Ann McNeill, Pete Driezen

American Journal of Preventive Medicine | ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC | Published : 2007


BACKGROUND: Health warnings on cigarette packages provide smokers with universal access to information on the risks of smoking. However, warnings vary considerably among countries, ranging from graphic depictions of disease on Canadian packages to obscure text warnings in the United States. The current study examined the effectiveness of health warnings on cigarette packages in four countries. METHODS: Quasi-experimental design. Telephone surveys were conducted with representative cohorts of adult smokers (n=14,975): Canada (n=3687), United States (n=4273), UK (n=3634), and Australia (n=3381). Surveys were conducted between 2002 and 2005, before and at three time points following implementat..

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