Phenol red mimics biological actions of estradiol: enhancement of osteoblast proliferation in vitro and of type I collagen gene expression in bone and uterus of rats in vivo.
M Ernst, C Schmid, ER Froesch
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Published : 1989
Since osteoblasts are direct targets for estradiol in vitro, and Phenol Red has been reported to bear estrogen-like bioactivity, we investigated whether the pH indicator also mimicked the biological effects of estradiol on bone cells in vitro. We then asked whether estrogenic effects of Phenol Red could be observed in vivo, firstly on the uterus, and if so, whether Phenol Red could also effect bone in vivo. The proliferation of calvarial osteoblasts was stimulated by commercially available preparations of Phenol Red in a dose-dependent manner at 1.5-50 microM. This effect was not abolished in the presence of an antibody against insulin-like growth factor I. In addition, Phenol Red increased ..View full abstract