Double lacrimal puncta: clinical presentation and potential mechanisms of epiphora.
Khami Satchi, Alan A McNab
Ophthalmology | Published : 2010
PURPOSE: Congenital supernumerary lacrimal puncta and canaliculi are rarely reported. Our purpose is to present the largest series of patients with supernumerary puncta and to describe the clinical presentation and associated lacrimal anomalies. DESIGN: Observational retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: All patients diagnosed with supernumerary puncta by a single surgeon between 1988 and 2008. METHODS: Retrospective case note review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, clinical presentation, lacrimal and systemic examination findings, management, and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (12 female, 11 male) with a median presenting age of 54 years (range, 1-88 years..View full abstract