The potential roles of endogenous retroviruses in autoimmunity.
K Nakagawa, LC Harrison
Immunological Reviews | Published : 1996
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are estimated to comprise up to 1% of human DNA. While the genome of many ERVs is interrupted by termination codons, deletions or frame shift mutations, some ERVs are transcriptionally active and recent studies reveal protein expression or particle formation by human ERVs. ERVs have been implicated as aetiological agents of autoimmune disease, because of their structural and sequence similarities to exogenous retroviruses associated with immune dysregulation and their tissue-specific or differentiation-dependent expression. In fact, retrovirus-like particles distinct from those of known exogenous retroviruses and immune responses to ERV proteins have been obser..View full abstract