Journal article

Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza vaccine administered by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection in elderly adults.

Ian F Cook, Ian Barr, Gunter Hartel, Dimity Pond, Alan W Hampson

Vaccine | Published : 2006


In many countries there is no clear recommendation regarding the preferred route of administration of inactivated influenza vaccines. In a randomised, observer blind study of 720 elderly subjects, a split, trivalent influenza vaccine was significantly more immunogenic for both A strains (H3N2 and H1N1, p = 0.0016 and 0.003, respectively) when given intramuscularly compared to subcutaneously. This difference was due entirely to a gender effect, with females in the intramuscular (IM) group having a significantly greater serological response than females in the subcutaneous (SC) group for both of these strains. Similar results were seen with local adverse effects. These data suggest that vaccin..

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University of Melbourne Researchers