Journal article

Enter the Dragon: The Dynamic and Multifunctional Evolution of Anguimorpha Lizard Venoms

Ivan Koludarov, Timothy NW Jackson, Bianca op den Brouw, James Dobson, Daniel Dashevsky, Kevin Arbuckle, Christofer J Clemente, Edward J Stockdale, Chip Cochran, Jordan Debono, Carson Stephens, Nadya Panagides, Bin Li, Mary-Louise Roy Manchadi, Aude Violette, Rudy Fourmy, Iwan Hendrikx, Amanda Nouwens, Judith Clements, Paolo Martelli Show all

TOXINS | MDPI | Published : 2017


While snake venoms have been the subject of intense study, comparatively little work has been done on lizard venoms. In this study, we have examined the structural and functional diversification of anguimorph lizard venoms and associated toxins, and related these results to dentition and predatory ecology. Venom composition was shown to be highly variable across the 20 species of Heloderma, Lanthanotus, and Varanus included in our study. While kallikrein enzymes were ubiquitous, they were also a particularly multifunctional toxin type, with differential activities on enzyme substrates and also ability to degrade alpha or beta chains of fibrinogen that reflects structural variability. Examina..

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Awarded by University of Queensland

Awarded by UM Multi-Year Research Grant

Funding Acknowledgements

Bryan G. Fry was funded by a University of Queensland Major Infrastructure and Equipment grant (2016000654). Ivan Koludarov and Daniel Dashevsky were supported by University of Queensland PhD scholarships. Timothy NW Jackson, Bianca op den Brouw and Jordan Debono were in receipt of APA scholarships. Bin Li was in receipt of PhD studentship from the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau (UM) and Hang Fai Kwok was supported by UM Multi-Year Research Grant (MYRG2015-00025-FHS). Judith Clements was supported by a National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia Principal Research Fellowship. We thank the reviewers, as well as Stephen Zozaya and David Kirshner, for constructive comments on a previous version of the manuscript. We thank Richard Cazares and Patrick Prevost for access to their collections. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Patrick Prevost and Alphabiotoxine is grateful for his everlasting support and friendship.