Book Chapter

The stratification of opportunity in high participation systems (HPS) of higher education

S Marginson

Access to Higher EducatioAccess to Higher Education: Theoretical perspectives and contemporary challengesn: Theoretical perspectives and contemporary challenges | Routledge | Published : 2017


As measured by UNESCO and discussed in Chapter 1, the worldwide Gross Tertiary Enrolment Rate (GTER) is increasing very rapidly by historical standards, at 1 per cent a year, and now constitutes one third of the nominal school leaver age group. Participation is expanding significantly in most countries, whatever the level of their GTERs. The tendency towards high participation systems (HPS) of higher education, systems in which the GTER exceeds 50 per cent, has spread from the high-income and post-Soviet zones to include most of the emerging (‘developing’) countries with GDP per capita of $5,000 or more. The growth of higher education is accompanied by economic modernisation, but economi..

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