Journal article

The British consular courts and moroccan Muslim identity: 'Christian' justice as a tool

CR Pennell

Journal of North African Studies | Published : 1996


The use of law in pre-colonial Morocco was a political and ideological weapon in the lands of both Moroccans and Europeans. Before 1912 Moroccans frequently made use of the Consular Courts in disputes with Europeans and exploited the system of consular protection to their own benefit. This process continued after the colonial regimes had been installed as a means of avoiding the colonial legal system which created a tripartite legal structure. It was only when the independent state took over the protectorate legal system that these opportunities for legal choice came to an end.

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