Book Chapter

MRA: Upper Extremity and Hand Vessels

Ruth P Lim, Vivian S Lee

MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS | SPRINGER | Published : 2012

Abstract

Catheter angiography is the acknowledged clinical gold standard for upper extremity arterial assessment. However, it is invasive and can be particularly challenging in the upper extremity, as iodinated contrast injection can initiate vasospasm and pain, particularly in young adults. MR evaluation of the upper extremity and hand vessels can provide a noninvasive comprehensive assessment, particularly since the advent of gadolinium-enhanced MRA (Gd MRA) in the early 1990s [1]. Indications for upper extremity MR angiography or venography are varied, including atherosclerosis, trauma, thromboembolic phenomena, and vasculitides. Benefits of MRA include lack of ionizing radiation, no requirement f..

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University of Melbourne Researchers