Journal article

Revisiting the Cause of the 1989-2009 Arctic Surface Warming Using the Surface Energy Budget: Downward Infrared Radiation Dominates the Surface Fluxes

Sukyoung Lee, Tingting Gong, Steven B Feldstein, James A Screen, Ian Simmonds



The Arctic has been warming faster than elsewhere, especially during the cold season. According to the leading theory, ice-albedo feedback warms the Arctic Ocean during the summer, and the heat gained by the ocean is released during the winter, causing the cold-season warming. Screen and Simmonds (2010; SS10) concluded that the theory is correct by comparing trend patterns in surface air temperature (SAT), surface turbulence heat flux (HF), and net surface infrared radiation (IR). However, in this comparison, downward IR is more appropriate to use. By analyzing the same data used in SS10 using the surface energy budget, it is shown here that over most of the Arctic the skin temperature trend..

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Awarded by National Science Foundation

Awarded by National Nature Scientific Foundation of China

Awarded by National Basic Research Program of China

Awarded by Australian Research Council

Awarded by Natural Environment Research Council

Funding Acknowledgements

The ERA-Interim data used in this study were downloaded from the ECMWF data server. This study was supported by National Science Foundation grants AGS-1455577and AGS-1401220 and the National Nature Scientific Foundation of China (41305048) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB417403). Screen and Simmonds were supported by Australian Research Council grant DP160101997. We thank Rodrigo Caballero and an anonymous reviewer for their very helpful comments. There are no real or perceived financial conflicts of interests for any author. There are no other affiliations for any author that may be perceived as having a conflict of interest with respect to the results of this paper.