Conference Proceedings

Evaluating Real-Time Gaze Representations to Infer Intentions in Competitive Turn-Based Strategy Games

Joshua Newn, Eduardo Velloso, Fraser Allison, Yomna Abdelrahman, Frank Vetere

Association for Computing Machinery | Published : 2017


In this paper, we investigate nine different visual representations of gaze in a competitive digital game setting. We evaluate the ability of spectators to infer a player's intentions in the game for each visual representation. Our results show that spectators have a remarkable ability to infer intent accurately using all nine visualizations, but that visualizations with certain characteristics were more comprehensible and more readily revealed the player's intent. The real-time Heatmap visualization was the most highly preferred by participants and the most effective in revealing intent, due to its ability to balance real-time gaze information with a persistent summary of recent gaze behavi..

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Funding Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the Australian Commonwealth Government and the Microsoft Research Centre for Social NUI for their support on this project. We further acknowledge Zaher Joukhadar for major improvements made on the custom built software.