Journal article

Germ layer induction in ESC--following the vertebrate roadmap.

Jim Smith, Fiona Wardle, Matt Loose, Ed Stanley, Roger Patient

Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol | Published : 2007


Controlled differentiation of pluripotential cells takes place routinely and with great success in developing vertebrate embryos. It therefore makes sense to take note of how this is achieved and use this knowledge to control the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). An added advantage is that the differentiated cells resulting from this process in embryos have proven functionality and longevity. This unit reviews what is known about the embryonic signals that drive differentiation in one of the most informative of the vertebrate animal models of development, the amphibian Xenopus laevis. It summarizes their identities and the extent to which their activities are dose-dependent. Th..

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