Dose patterns in commercially insured subjects chronically exposed to opioids: a large cohort study in the United States.
Maria Soledad Cepeda, Mila Etropolski, Rachel Weinstein, Daniel Fife, Raymond Boston, Amy Matcho
BMC Palliat Care | Published : 2010
BACKGROUND: Little data exist on how opioid doses vary with the length of exposure among chronic opioid users. METHODS: To characterize the change in the dosage of opioids over time, a retrospective cohort study using the PharMetrics database for the years 1999 through 2008 was conducted. Individuals exposed to opioids in 2000 who had 2 opioid dispensings at least 6 months apart and were opioid naive (did not receive any opioid 6 month before their exposure in 2000) were included. The date of the first dispensing in 2000 was defined as the index date and the dispensing had to be for a strong and full agonist opioid. All opioid doses were converted to oral morphine equivalent doses. Exposure ..View full abstract