Long-Term Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering on Cardiovascular Outcomes
Hertzel C Gerstein, Michael E Miller, Saul Genuth, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, John B Buse, David C Goff, Jeffrey L Probstfield, William C Cushman, Henry N Ginsberg, J Thomas Bigger, Richard H Grimm, Robert P Byington, Yves D Rosenberg, William T Friedewald
New England Journal of Medicine | MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC | Published : 2011
Awarded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (contracts N01-HC-95178, N01-HC-95179, N01-HC-95180, N01-HC-95181, N01-HC-95182, N01-HC-95183, N01-HC-95184, IAA#Y1-HC-9035, and IAA#Y1-HC-1010), and partially supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Eye Institute and by General Clinical Research Centers at many sites; substudies within the ACCORD trial on cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life were supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The following companies provided study medications, equipment, or supplies: Abbott Laboratories, Amylin Pharmaceutical, AstraZeneca, Bayer HealthCare, Closer Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline, King Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Omron Healthcare, Sanofi-Aventis, and Schering-Plough.Dr. Bigger reports receiving consulting fees and travel support from Merck and Roche and patent fees and royalties from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for risk-stratification software; Dr. Buse, receiving consulting fees from Novo Nordisk, Amylin, Becton Dickinson, Eli Lilly, Hoffmann-La Roche (now Genentech), Glyco-Mark, Wyeth, Daiichi Sankyo, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bayhill Therapeutics, LipoScience, MannKind, Veritas, MicroIslet, GlaxoSmithKline, Abbott, Exsulin, and GI Dynamics and grant support from Amylin, Novo Nordisk, Medtronic, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Tolerex, Osiris, Halozyme, Pfizer, Hoffmann-La Roche, InterKrin, Merck, Sanofi-Aventis, Dexcom, Johnson & Johnson, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Fujisawa, and the American Academy of Family Practice Foundation, holding stock in Insulet, and providing expert testimony for Novo Nordisk; Dr. Cushman, receiving consulting fees from Novartis, Takeda, Sanofi-Aventis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, King, Daiichi-Sankyo, Gilead, Theravance, Pharmacopeia, and Sciele and institutional grant support to the Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center from Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, and Merck; Dr. Genuth, receiving consulting fees from Merck and Daiichi Sankyo and holding stock in Novartis and Johnson & Johnson; Dr. Gerstein, receiving consulting fees from Sanofi-Aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche, Medtronic, Merck, Bayer, Bioavail, and Janssen-Ortho, institutional grant support to McMaster University from Sanofi-Aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Novo Nordisk, Merck, Pronova, Roche, Eli Lilly, and Boehringer Ingelheim, and lecture fees from Sanofi-Aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Solvay, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, Bayer, Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, and Takeda; Dr. Ginsberg, being a member of the board of Merck and Schering-Plough and the global advisory board of Bristol-Myers Squibb/AstraZeneca and receiving consulting fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Regeneron/Sanofi-Aventis, Abbott, Roche, Isis/Genzyme, Novartis, and Pfizer, institutional grant support to the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons from Merck, Roche, Isis/Genzyme, and AstraZeneca, and payment from Pfizer for development of an educational presentation; Dr. Goff, being a member of the data and safety monitoring board for Takeda and receiving institutional grant support to the Wake Forest University School of Medicine from Merck; Dr. Grimm, being a member of the board of Pfizer, receiving consulting fees from Pfizer, Merck, and Novartis, personal and institutional grants to the University of Minnesota from Pfizer, Merck, and Novartis, lecture fees from Pfizer, Merck, Novartis, Forest, Schering-Plough, and Takeda, and travel support from Takeda and Roche, and attending the AstraZeneca symposium at the Cleveland Clinic and investigator meetings for Merck, Novartis, and Pfizer; Dr. Ismail-Beigi, receiving consulting fees from Eli Lilly; Dr. Miller, receiving consulting fees from Roche; and Dr. Probstfield, receiving institutional grant support to the University of Washington School of Medicine from SanofiAventis, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Abbott. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.