Journal article

Stratospheric Injection of Brominated Very Short-Lived Substances: Aircraft Observations in the Western Pacific and Representation in Global Models

Pamela A Wales, Ross J Salawitch, Julie M Nicely, Daniel C Anderson, Timothy P Canty, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Theodore K Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Dexian Chen, L Gregory Huey, David J Tanner, Carlos A Cuevas, Rafael P Fernandez, Douglas E Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Elliot L Atlas, Samuel R Hall, Maria A Navarro Show all

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES | AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION | Published : 2018

Abstract

We quantify the stratospheric injection of brominated very short‐lived substances (VSLS) based on aircraft observations acquired in winter 2014 above the Tropical Western Pacific during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) campaigns. The overall contribution of VSLS to stratospheric bromine was determined to be 5.0 ± 2.1 ppt, in agreement with the 5 ± 3 ppt estimate provided in the 2014 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Ozone Assessment report (WMO 2014), but with lower uncertainty. Measurements of organic bromine compounds, including VSLS, were analyzed using CFC‐11 as a reference stratospheric tr..

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University of Melbourne Researchers

Grants

Awarded by NSF


Awarded by Australian Research Council's Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science


Awarded by Australian Government's National Computational Merit Allocation Scheme


Awarded by Australian Antarctic science grant program


Awarded by Environment Research and Technology Development Fund of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan


Awarded by SISLAC project


Funding Acknowledgements

We sincerely appreciate the helpful comments from three anonymous reviewers that have led to a substantial improvement in the paper. The CONTRAST field deployment was supported by the U.S. NSF, and the ATTREX field deployment was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). We greatly appreciate the support of pilots, meteorological forecasters, flight planners, and a wide range of logistical support that enabled the acquisition of the observations. P. A. W., R. J. S., T. P. C., J. M. N., and D. C. A. received support from NSF, NASA Atmospheric Composition Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), and the NASA Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (MAP). D. C. A. also received support from the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program. J. M. N. was also supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. R. V. acknowledges funding from NSF awards AGS-1261740 and AGS-1620530. CONTRAST data are publicly available at "http://data.eol.ucar.edu/master_list/?project= CONTRAST." ATTREX data are publicly available at "https://espoarchive.nasa.gov/archive/browse/attrex/id4/GHawk." The National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) meteorological data are available at "https://doi.org/10.5065/D6M043C6." CCMI outputs from CESM1-WACCM and CESM1-CAM4Chem are archived by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) at "www.earthsystem-grid.org," and NCAR is sponsored by NSF. CCMI output from the EMAC-L90MA-SD simulation is available at "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1204495." All other CCMI simulations are archived by the British Atmospheric Data Centre at "http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/". Output from CAM-chem-SD is available as "NCAR/ACD CAMChem 1 Degree Forecast" at "http://catalog.eol.ucar.edu/contrast/model/CAMChem_NCAR_1deg/." WACCM and CAM-Chem are components of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which is also supported by NSF. Computing resources were provided by NCAR's Climate Simulation Laboratory, sponsored by NSF and other agencies. This research was enabled by the computational and storage resources of NCAR's Computational and Information System Laboratory (CISL). R. S. and K. A. S., with ACCESS-CCM, acknowledge support from Australian Research Council's Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science (CE110001028), the Australian Government's National Computational Merit Allocation Scheme (q90), and Australian Antarctic science grant program (FoRCES 4012). CCSRNIES research was supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1303 and 2-1709) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and computations were performed on NEC-SX9/A(ECO) computers at the CGER, NIES. The EMAC simulations have been performed at the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) through support from the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (BMBF). DKRZ and its scientific steering committee are gratefully acknowledged for providing the HPC and data archiving resources for the consortial project ESCiMo (Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling). The TOMCAT modeling was supported by NERC NCAS and the SISLAC project (NE/R001782/1), and the simulations were performed on the Archer and Leeds HPC Systems.