Journal article

Heritability of Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor Type 1 Expression and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Adolescent Twins

Natalie T Mills, Margie J Wright, Anjali K Henders, Darryl W Eyles, Bernhard T Baune, John J McGrath, Enda M Byrne, Narelle K Hansell, Eva Birosova, James G Scott, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Naomi R Wray, Anna AE Vinkhuyzen



Cytokines and vitamin D both have a role in modulating the immune system, and are also potentially useful biomarkers in mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. Studying the variability of cytokines and vitamin D in a healthy population sample may add to understanding the association between these biomarkers and mental illness. To assess genetic and environmental contributions to variation in circulating levels of cytokines and vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25(OH)D3), we analyzed data from a healthy adolescent twin cohort (mean age 16.2 years; standard deviation 0.25). Plasma cytokine measures were available for 400 individuals (85 MZ, 115 DZ pairs), dri..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by Rotary Mental Health, the Australian Research Council

Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council

Funding Acknowledgements

We thank the Brisbane twins and siblings for their participation; Marlene Grace and Ann Eldridge for sample collection; Kerrie McAloney for study coordination; Anthony Conciatore for IT support, Leanne Wallace and the Molecular Genetics Laboratory for sample preparation. The research was supported by Rotary Mental Health, the Australian Research Council (A7960034, A79906588, A79801419, DP0212016, DP0343921) and by the National Health and Medical Research Council (389891, 1049911, 1069141).