Journal article

Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids: novel regulators of macrophage differentiation and atherogenesis.

Venkat Vangaveti, Bernhard T Baune, R Lee Kennedy

Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Published : 2010


Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) are stable oxidation products of linoleic acid, the generation of which is increased where oxidative stress is increased, such as in diabetes. In early atherosclerosis, 13-HODE is generated in macrophages by 15-lipoxygenase-1. This enhances protective mechanisms through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-g activation leading to increased clearance of lipid and lipid-laden cells from the arterial wall. In later atherosclerosis, both 9-HODE and 13-HODE are generated nonenzymatically. At this stage, early protective mechanisms are overwhelmed and pro-inflammatory effects of 9-HODE, acting through the receptor GPR132, and increased apoptosis pr..

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University of Melbourne Researchers