p21-activated kinase signalling in pancreatic cancer: New insights into tumour biology and immune modulation
Kai Wang, Graham S Baldwin, Mehrdad Nikfarjam, Hong He
World Journal of Gastroenterology | BAISHIDENG PUBLISHING GROUP INC | Published : 2018
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies worldwide, with a very poor prognosis and a five-year survival rate less than 8%. This dismal outcome is largely due to delayed diagnosis, early distant dissemination and resistance to conventional chemo-therapies. Kras mutation is a well-defined hallmark of pancreatic cancer, with over 95% of cases harbouring Kras mutations that give rise to constitutively active forms of Kras. As important down-stream effectors of Kras, p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration and chemo-resistance. Immunotherapy is now emerging as a promising treatment modality in the era..View full abstract
The authors would like to acknowledge Pancare Foundation (https://www.pancare.org.au) for supporting the pancreatic cancer research program in the Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne. Kai Wang was supported by Melbourne International Fee Remission Scholarship (MIFRS), Melbourne International Research Scholarship (MIRS) and the Moshe Sambor Scholarship (Pancare Foundation).