Journal article

Phosphate, Calcification in Blood, and Mineral Stress: The Physiologic Blood Mineral Buffering System and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk

Andreas Pasch, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Edward R Smith

International Journal of Nephrology | HINDAWI LTD | Published : 2018

Abstract

Phosphate is an important cardiovascular risk factor and lowering elevated blood phosphate concentrations is a main therapeutic target in kidney patients. Phosphate is subject to the blood mineral buffering system which controls the precipitation of calcium and phosphate. Calciprotein particles (CPP), self-assembling complexes of calcium phosphate and serum proteins, are the nanomorphological correlates of this system. CPP1 are spherical, 50-100 nm in diameter, and contain amorphous mineral. CPP2 are oblongated, 100-200nm in the long axis, and they contain a crystalline mineral core. The relative abundance and biological activity of these particles are a matter of intense research, because t..

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