Journal article

Symbiodinium genomes reveal adaptive evolution of functions related to coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis

Huanle Liu, Timothy G Stephens, Raul A Gonzalez-Pech, Victor H Beltran, Bruno Lapeyre, Pim Bongaerts, Ira Cooke, Manuel Aranda, David G Bourne, Sylvain Foret, David J Miller, Madeleine JH van Oppen, Christian R Voolstra, Mark A Ragan, Cheong Xin Chan



Symbiosis between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and reef-building corals forms the trophic foundation of the world's coral reef ecosystems. Here we present the first draft genome of Symbiodinium goreaui (Clade C, type C1: 1.03 Gbp), one of the most ubiquitous endosymbionts associated with corals, and an improved draft genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii (Clade F, strain CS-156: 1.05 Gbp) to further elucidate genomic signatures of this symbiosis. Comparative analysis of four available Symbiodinium genomes against other dinoflagellate genomes led to the identification of 2460 nuclear gene families (containing 5% of Symbiodinium genes) that show evidence of positive selection, includin..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by Australian Research Council

Awarded by Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) National Facility systems through the NCI Merit Allocation Scheme

Funding Acknowledgements

We thank Todd LaJeunesse for information on the original isolation of S. kawagutii. H.L. was supported by an Australian Research Council grant (DP150101875) awarded to M.A.R. and C.X.C. T.G.S. is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. R.A.G.-P. is supported by an International Postgraduate Research Scholarship and a University of Queensland Centenary Scholarship. This project was supported by the computational resources of the Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) National Facility systems through the NCI Merit Allocation Scheme (Project d85) awarded to M.A.R. and C.X.C. The data used in this project were funded by the Great Barrier Reef Foundation's Resilient Coral Reefs Successfully Adapting to Climate Change research and development program in collaboration with the Australian Government, Bioplatforms Australia through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS), Rio Tinto and a family foundation. The authors also acknowledge the work done by the Reef Future Genomics (ReFuGe) 2020 Consortium. Access to data generated by the consortium can be accessed via In memory of S.F., our friend and colleague who is sorely missed.