Journal article

Tics and Tourette syndrome

Daryl Efron, Russell C Dale

JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH | WILEY | Published : 2018

Abstract

Tourette syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder. The genetic basis is complex, and both in utero and ex utero environmental factors may modify the phenotypic expression of the disorder. Inflammation related to aberrations in immune activation appears to play a pathogenic role in some cases. Multiple neurochemical pathways are involved. Rather than being a pure movement problem, tics are now understood to also have a sensory component. This has resulted in new psychological therapeutic strategies and other potential treatments. Furthermore, comorbidities are common, particularly attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and often cause more difficultie..

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