Journal article

Haem iron intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

Heather A Ward, Julia Whitman, David C Muller, Mattias Johansson, Paula Jakszyn, Elisabete Weiderpass, Domenico Palli, Anouar Fanidi, Roel Vermeulen, Anne Tjonneland, Louise Hansen, Christina C Dahm, Kim Overvad, Gianluca Severi, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Aurelie Affret, Rudolf Kaaks, Renee Fortner, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou Show all

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2019


BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs..

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Awarded by World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), Statistics Netherlands (The Netherlands)

Awarded by Health Research Fund (FIS)


Awarded by Cancer Research UK

Awarded by Medical Research Council

Funding Acknowledgements

The coordination of EPIC is financially supported by the European Commission (DG-SANCO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The national cohorts are supported by Danish Cancer Society (Denmark); Ligue Contre le Cancer, Institut Gustave Roussy, Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) (France); German Cancer Aid, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Deutsche Krebshilfe, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum and Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany); the Hellenic Health Foundation (Greece); Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro-AIRC-Italy and National Research Council (Italy); Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), Netherlands Cancer Registry (NKR), LK Research Funds, Dutch Prevention Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), Statistics Netherlands (The Netherlands); ERC-2009-AdG 232997 and Nordforsk, Nordic Centre of Excellence programme on Food, Nutrition and Health (Norway); Health Research Fund (FIS), PI13/00061 to Granada, PI13/01162 to EPIC-Murcia, Regional Governments of Andalucia, Asturias, Basque Country, Murcia ((no. 6236) and Navarra, ISCIII RETIC (RD06/0020) (Spain); Swedish Cancer Society, Swedish Research Council and County Councils of Skane and Vasterbotten (Sweden); Cancer Research UK (14136 to K.T. Khaw, N.J. Wareham; C570/A16491 to RCT and C8221/A19170 to T. Key (EPIC-Oxford), Medical Research Council (1000143 to K.T. Khaw, N.J. Wareham, MR/M012190/1 to T. Key (EPIC-Oxford)) (United Kingdom).