FLUOROSIS AS A PROBABLE FACTOR IN METABOLIC BONE DISEASE IN CAPTIVE NEW ZEALAND NATIVE FROGS (LEIOPELMA SPECIES)
Stephanie D Shaw, Phillip J Bishop, Catherine Harvey, Lee Berger, Lee F Skerratt, Karen Callon, Maureen Watson, John Potter, Richard Jakob-Hoff, Mike Goold, Nicole Kunzmann, Peter West, Rick Speare
JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE | AMER ASSOC ZOO VETERINARIANS | Published : 2012
This report describes the investigations into the cause and treatment of metabolic bone disease (MBD) in captive native New Zealand frogs (Leiopelma spp.) and the role of fluoride in the disease. MBD was diagnosed in Leiopelma archeyi and Leiopelma hochstetteri in 2008 at three institutions: Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, and the University of Otago. Most of these frogs had originally been held at the University of Canterbury for several years (2000-2004) but some were collected directly from the wild. Radiographs on archived and live frogs showed that MBD had been present at Canterbury, but at a lower rate (3%) than in the current institutions (38-67%). Microcomputed tomography showed that the..View full abstract
Funding for histology was provided by the New Zealand Wildlife Society Marion Cunningham Grant. Thanks to Melanie Farrant and Nicole Czerinak, veterinary nurses from the New Zealand Centre for Conservation Medicine, for assistance in taking radiographs. Thanks to Auckland Zoo native frog keepers Natalie Clark, Andrew Nelson, and Tanya Shennan, and curator Ian Fraser, for their support in the investigation. Thanks to Kara Goddard, native frog zookeeper at Hamilton Zoo, for her support in the investigation. Thanks to Dr. Bethany Jackson and Kirsten Derry at the New Zealand Centre for Conservation Medicine for assistance in data collection. Thanks to Dr. Sam Young of Mogo Zoo and Dr. Kevin M. Wright for medical advice in treating these frogs. The authors also thank Dr. Richard Norm, Dr. Maurice Alley, and Dr. Brett Gartrell from Massey University for their assistance in histology. Thanks to the many Maori Iwi tribes for supporting native frog conservation, including: Hauraki Maori Trust Board, Mataora No. 1 & 2 Block Inc., Moehau Nga Tangata Whenua, Ngati Hei Trust, Ngati Huarere, Ngati Maru ki Hauraki Inc, Ngati Paoa Trust, Ngati Pukenga ki Waiau Society, Ngati Rahiri Tumutumu, Ngati Rongo U Charitable Trust, Ngati Tai Umupuia Te Waka Totara Trust, Ngati Tawhaki, Ngati Whanaunga, Te Kupenga O Ngati Hako Inc, Te Patukirikiri Iwi Inc Te Runanga O Ngati Pu, Te Ruunanga A Iwi o Ngati Tamatera. and Te Uringahu Ngati Maru Manaia. Many thanks to Lisa Daglish, Paul Gasson, Amanda Haigh and Oliver Overdyck at the New Zealand Department of Conservation for support and assistance with samples and permits.