Haemodynamic and structural correlates of the first and second heart sounds in pulmonary arterial hypertension: an acoustic cardiography cohort study.
William Chan, Maryam Woldeyohannes, Rebecca Colman, Patti Arand, Andrew D Michaels, John D Parker, John T Granton, Susanna Mak
BMJ Open | Published : 2013
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between acoustic characteristics of the first and second heart sounds (S1 and S2) and underlying cardiac structure and haemodynamics in patients with isolated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and controls. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral and community hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively evaluated 40 PAH patients undergoing right-heart catheterisation with contemporaneous digital acoustic cardiography (intensity and complexity) and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. To normalise for differences in body habitus, acoustic variables were also expressed as a ratio (S2/S1). 130 participants (55 ..View full abstract