Comorbidities in Heart Failure: Are There Gender Differences?
Ingrid Hopper, Dipak Kotecha, Ken Lee Chin, Robert J Mentz, Thomas G von Lueder
Current Heart Failure Reports | Springer Science and Business Media LLC | Published : 2016
Compared to men, women with heart failure (HF) are often older, smoke less, and have more preserved ejection fraction (EF) and hypertensive HF rather than HF of ischemic etiology. Gender-stratified outcomes on comorbidities data in HF are scarce. Women have traditionally been underrepresented in HF trials. Although data suggest that overall prognosis may be better in women, they experience lower quality of life with greater functional impairment from HF compared to men. Gender differences have been reported for comorbid diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal dysfunction, anemia, and depression and may explain gender disparity in outcomes. However, possible confounding of como..View full abstract