Classic and Nonclassic Renin-Angiotensin Systems in the Critically Ill
Laurent Bitker, Louise M Burrell
Critical Care Clinics | W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC | Published : 2019
Classic and nonclassic renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) are 2 sides of an ubiquitous endocrine/paracrine cascade regulating blood pressure and homeostasis. Angiotensin II and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels are associated with severity of disease in the critically ill, and are central to the physiology and the pathogenesis of circulatory shock. Angiotensin (1-7) and ACE2 act as an endogenous counterregulatory arm to the angiotensin II/ACE axis. The tissue-based RAS has paracrine effects dissociated from those of the circulating RAS. Exogenous angiotensin II or ACE2 may improve the outcome of septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively.