Factors That Influence the Immune Response to Vaccination
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS | AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY | Published : 2019
There is substantial variation between individuals in the immune response to vaccination. In this review, we provide an overview of the plethora of studies that have investigated factors that influence humoral and cellular vaccine responses in humans. These include intrinsic host factors (such as age, sex, genetics, and comorbidities), perinatal factors (such as gestational age, birth weight, feeding method, and maternal factors), and extrinsic factors (such as preexisting immunity, microbiota, infections, and antibiotics). Further, environmental factors (such as geographic location, season, family size, and toxins), behavioral factors (such as smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, and sle..View full abstract
P.Z. is supported by a Fellowship from the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and an International Research Scholarship from the University of Melbourne. We declare that we have no competing interests.